Woodsman for Survival

So I have been contemplating putting this out there for some time now, and have finally decided, why not? I have used this personally over other acronyms that exist for quite a while, and have just introduced it at my last class. I will be continuing to do so from here on out as well.

There are many acronyms out there, and I guess they are all good in their own regard. I don’t consider mine better than any other, but it is mine, and I like it. I thought others may enjoy it as well and find it easy to use and remember.

Here is a quick first look at it, but I am planning a short video series on my youtube channel to cover this, as well as some other key points and discussions with regards to “Survival”.









Again, more to come on this as this is just a quick first look.

A Snowshoe Primer (Tim Smith, 2014)


A Snowshoe Primer

A Snowshoe Primer post image

I was a boy when I received my first pair of snowshoes, a wood-framed, rawhide-laced (the rawhide was traditionally made from moose hide and known as babiche, pronounced “bab-eesh”) pair made in Maine that took me on countless boyhood journeys through the winter woods. Since then, I’ve snowshoed all over Maine, New Hampshire, New Brunswick, Quebec and Alaska. A few years ago I did a rough estimation of how far I’ve walked on snowshoes, and it was more than a few thousand miles.

The aboriginal people of Europe and Asia developed skis for moving on deep snow. In North America, they developed snowshoes. Both are ways to walk on deep snow and not sink. They function by spreading your weight across a larger surface area of snow, allowing you to walk on top of the snow instead of “post holing”, or sinking down to the ground with each step. This saves energy and allows you to move much faster. The bigger the frame and the tighter the weave, the more flotation it provides. In waist-deep snow, covering 50 meters with no snowshoes has taken me more than ten minutes; wearing snowshoes, I walked right across it like I was walking down a sidewalk.

Snowshoe Design

Despite our modern homogenization of outdoor gear (ie. the greatest knife for all environments!), snowshoes size and shape evolved with distinct regional differences. In open areas with deep, dry snow and few trees such as Alaska, the shoe that developed was long and narrow. On the other end of North America in northern Quebec, where the snow is deep and the bush is thick, a short, rounded shoe was developed. The important point is that the land and the local snow conditions influenced the size and shape.

Two Pairs

The weather is never static, and as a result there isn’t one perfect pair for any location. The large-framed, finely-woven shoes needed for the deep, dry snow of midwinter wouldn’t last long in the icy, sharp-edged conditions of the shoulder seasons. A smaller, more coarsely-woven pair was kept for such conditions. These late-season conditions are also when an improvised pair such as Kochanski’s ski shoe perform their best.

Keeping a second pair handy isn’t just for the shoulder season. My Cree friends of northern Quebec bring two pairs even in the dry snows of midwinter. The first pair is for covering distances on the trail. They’re longer and narrower. The second pair is for maneuvering in thick bush. They’re shorter and rounder. As with all aspects of outdoor gear, there isn’t that one perfect pair that will do it all.

Cree Snowshoes

Choosing Your First Pair Of Snowshoes

If you’ve never used snowshoes before, the choices can be bewildering. But there’s a simple piece of advice I give to people coming on our winter trips. Get the biggest pair you can walk in without having to walk bowlegged. If they are of the short and wide variety, you’ll have to take longer than normal steps. When the snowshoe is the right size and the bindings are well-adjusted, you should forget you’re wearing it when walking straight ahead. There can be a slight extension of the forward stride, but ideally you walk with a normal gait, toes forward. There is a painful condition the voyageurs referred to as “Mal de raquette”, which is a straining of the muscles and tendons of the legs as a result of walking bowlegged. I’ve read about it, but thankfully never had it, but I’m told it’s quite painful. Avoid getting it by walking normally.

Axe Or Tapping Stick

Snow will accumulate on the top of the lacing. In a perfect world, the spacing of the weave would allow it to fall through so you’re never lifting the extra snow when you lift your foot. I’ve heard a lot about this perfect world and would like to visit there sometime, but where I’m at snow builds up on top of the shoe. In heavy snow, it adds significant weight to each step. I like to carry my axe or similarly sized stick in my hand to tap the side of the frame, which knocks off most of the snow. In cold, dry snow, I will tap whenever snow starts to build. In wet, heavy snow, I tap much more frequently. I also use the stick to push down on the toes of my snowshoes if I want to back up. Lastly, it’s useful for knocking the snow off of evergreen branches before I walk under them, keeping the snow off of my clothing.

Snowshoe Technique

Unlike skiing, where you can be refining your technique years after you begin, with snowshoeing the vast majority of the techniques are learned in the first few hours. Walking forward in a straight line is simple. If you put them on and try it, you’ll get it quickly. You may fall a few times, but most people pick it up within a few minutes. However, there are four points on technique that aren’t so intuitive.

First on this list is turning. This is where the majority of the falls occur because you can’t simply turn like when you’re walking. To turn with a wide radius, take a series of shuffling baby steps where your snowshoes never travel over one another. Lead with the foot in the direction you want to turn, and the other foot follows. Turning with a tight radius is more of a challenge. Lift up one shoe and rotate it 180 degrees in the air. When you place it down, your feet are roughly parallel, but your toes are facing in opposite directions and you resemble a sort of backwoods ballerina. When your foot is firmly planted, lift up the other foot and swing it around.

Second is backing up. Snowshoes don’t have a reverse, at least not when using traditional bindings. Because they’re weighted so that the back end is heavier, when you try to back up the rear of the snowshoe buries itself in the snow. There are two ways to deal with this. The first I already mentioned; carry a stick and push down on the toe of the shoe while backing up. The other way is to lift the shoe clear of the snow, then flex your hamstring and ankle at the same time to flip the tail up. While it’s flipping up, take a quick step backward. It takes some practice, but not that much.

Third is getting up after you fall. If the snow is deep and powdery, it can be very difficult to get back on your feet after you’ve fallen. It’s also a challenge if you’ve fallen backwards. A solution is to roll until you’re on your stomach, then get your shoes under you before trying to stand. Sometimes this will require you to take off the shoes in order to use them as a platform. This is another instance where carrying a stick can be helpful.

Lastly is something few people think of before hitting the trail; how to poop with your snowshoes on. The goal is to take care of your body’s needs without bringing any of it back to camp. First, pack down a small area so that the deep snow doesn’t touch you in unwanted places. Before attending to your duty, point the toes of your snowshoes together and widely splay the tails. If you’re unable to perform such functions in a squat, take the shoes off and stand on one while holding onto a tree. I don’t want to go into too much detail here, but there have been many occasions where people have brought unwanted evidence back into camp, frozen to the tail of their snowshoe. Don’t let it happen to you!

Snowshoe Bindings

Bindings need to hold your toe securely to the shoe and wrap around your heel to keep the shoe from coming off, while at the same time allowing your heel to move. This single pivot design is common to all bindings. Modern bindings are made of rigid materials and fasteners that require your hands to open and close. Traditional bindings, as I define them are flexible and non-rigid, and are thus easily made of of a variety of materials. I’ve always used a traditional binding because that’s what I find the most versatile and comfortable. That they are simple and homemade is just a bonus. On a cold day when those with modern bindings are bending over and taking off their mitts, I can take off and put on my snowshoes with no hands and a turn of the ankle. And I’m not even a magician!

There’s a statistic I’ve heard that 50 people in North America die each year as a result of such modern bindings; mostly ice fisherman whose feet go through the ice, but are unable to get their hands down to release their snowshoe. I don’t know where it comes from or if it’s true, but it makes sense.

Old books on snowshoeing describe native bindings as made out of a thong of braintanned moose hide (buckskin). Traditional woodcraft books describe them made from cotton lamp wick. I’ve tried both of these, but my preference is for nylon cord, reverse wrapped to the proper thickness so it doesn’t chew through my boots. The reason I opt for the nylon is that it doesn’t absorb water like the cotton or buckskin. When you’re on an extended trip and you get spell of weather near or above freezing, cotton or buckskin absorb moisture. When it gets cold again, they freeze solid, making it very difficult to adjust the binding if you want to change from mukluks to rubber boots. The nylon, even when frozen, can usually be thawed by grasping it tightly in your hand for a few seconds. If that doesn’t do it, a few minutes by the wood stove or fire and it’s dry enough to manipulate. In my experience, it takes much, much longer to dry both lamp wick or buckskin. Traditional snowshoe bindings are low tech and can be made out of anything. For several years in the mid 1990’s, my bindings were made from a section of 20 year old water ski rope. Use what you’ve got.

Snowshoe Bindings

Other Uses For Snowshoes

In addition to walking on them, I’ve used snowshoes as a snow shovel, chair, back rest and pot suspension system. Some have even used them as a trap to catch small birds (I haven’t, I enjoy their cheerful company too much). Improvised snowshoes can even be used as part of a mattress. And there are probably at least 1000 other ways they’ve been used throughout history.

We like to think that technological advances are intuitive, and that we’d figure them out on our own were we to be somehow transported back in time before they were the norm. It’s part of our hubris as a culture. But shrouded in the mists of prehistory there was that first person to make a pair of functional snowshoes, put them on, and walk on top of the snow. Now all these years later we’re still doing it. They, and all who came after and refined the craft deserve our gratitude. Snowshoeing has added immensely to my enjoyment of the natural world. Both exploring the local woods, and on remote expeditions, it is the gateway to a world of winter wonder that can’t be explained, only experienced.


Take a look at Tim’s website for tons of information and cool stories. He is a great writer and has a bunch of other blogs that are very enjoyable as well. If you are into the out of doors, I would say it is worth your time to check out.



Another Successful Class Complete


It always a bummer to have a class come to an end, but of course there is always the upside. There is no better feeling, at least for me, to have happy satisfied students leave here with a better understanding of how to interact with the wilderness in a more meaningful way. To see them learn new skills as they go, and apply and understand what we have been sharing with them is simply awesome.

So as this door closes, we look forward to the next one opening, and we begin to prepare to do it all over again. We will enjoy the time when it comes and have fun while we do it, and then again experience the drag of seeing it come to an end.

We are thankful for our students, and/or the opportunity folks provide us with sharing our knowledge with them.


Some Woodsman School Alumni stopped by during the class for some Dutch Over dinner, and we shared in some Woodsman Time as usual.



White Pine Burl and Harvesting for a Wood Bowl


Had a visit yesterday by our good friend Tim Smith from Jack Mountain Bushcraft. Was our second day of constant rain here at the Wilderness Living Course, but we shared lots of laughs by the fire and checked out some things around camp.

See blog on the Jack Mountain link below.




I am a 75 yr old “old fart” and have been pretty much home bound for the past year following unsuccessful back surgery.

I can’t remember how I found you on youtube but watching you has become one of life’s true pleasures for me.

 First of all, your knowledge of the outdoors and how to live with it is totally fascinating and instructive.

 But far more importantly, the example you set for others–especially for today’s youth–is commendable.

 You are one of the finest examples of living the American dream I have ever seen.

 I admire your honesty and humility and your willingness to share with all of us.

 Your courage in following your dream is an example to the thousands of kids who think they don’t stand a chance in life.

 If I were a teacher or parent with younger kids I would make watching your videos mandatory!

 I have no doubt that “little guy” will grow up to be a truly fine individual and that, after all, is what it’s all about.

 God bless and thank you


Jim (Last name left out for privacy)


Woodsman Ways – Our Approach and the Way Forward

Almost a decade ago we started our endeavor into Survival training, Bushcraft and the desire to teach folks Woodsman skills.  We had spent years in the out of doors to this point, be it hunting, fishing, camping and trapping to a small degree.  The Survival community at this time, though not entirely new, was relatively small.  This is when we started our research, the practicing of skills and even attended some courses from some of the top schools of the time.  Throughout our journey in making ourselves more comfortable afield, it was amazing to see how fast the community began to grow.

As we continued to grow ourselves, we started our youtube channel and began to share things we either already knew, had recently learned, and even the things that we were trying out for the first times.  This was a pleasurable time  and lots of folks started doing the same.  It was cool to see others sharing in what we all loved, and the desire to help one another was clear.

Our intent from the beginning was just that, if we could help someone someday, we consider ourselves successful.  We didn’t aim to be the best out there, but wanted to be the best we could be in what we were doing.  Honesty and Humbleness were our motto.  We didn’t see a need to lie or mislead folks in order to make a buck, after all…what we were sharing may end up being a life or death result.  We believe this in itself is what got us a small following that continues to grow each day.  How neat it is to know that folks trust us in this way, and realize that we truly aim to help.

Our school was finally born and we kept steadfast in our ways.  Keep it honest and relative.  Flashy is not always better.  Though there are a lot of Survival skills to concern yourselves with, most of them are not really needed in the so-called “Survival situation”.  Yes, the skills are fun to learn and practice, but typically not needed.  In some cases, doing some of the “cool” stuff, or believing that you need to,  could end you up in an even worse scenario.  So much hype and opinion based theories have flooded the community and clouded peoples perception on what they are really doing in the first place.  We try to keep clear of these thought processes and share the reality of things with our students.  Again, in our opinion, there is no room for blowing smoke in this field.

Over the years we have taken a new path.  We started moving away from the Survival skills as the main focus, and started looking at how we could teach folks in a more meaningful and appropriate manner.  Survival skills are a good thing to know, but that shouldn’t be the end of it.  In fact, we think that is where it begins.  So the skills are nice to have in case you find yourself in a pinch.  But how much better would it be to interact with the land in an entirely different way than thinking it is there to kill you all of the time?  So we started focusing on being able to interact, and in some cases even live,  with the land in a more natural way…..just as our forefathers did.  Doing it in this way offers a much more meaningful time in the woods even if you didn’t plan on being out there.  It is no longer a Survival situation, but an extended stay afield.  Not everyone spends a lot of time in the woods though, and this is why we find it relevant to teach the Survival skills, as well as it being a baseline as previously mentioned.

So what separates us from all of the other schools out there?  Well, first and foremost, we continue to seek knowledge and experience that will better benefit our students, and stay away from thinking that we already know it all.  There is currently no certification process for Instructors or Schools, which can make it difficult for folks to chose a worthy school to go to.  However, there are only certain schools (a small number) that do this Professionally.  That is why we found it important to become a Registered Maine Guide.  This is not some certification through another school or such, it is actually a License provided by the Sate of Maine proving that you have what it takes to Guide Wilderness Trips and teach students.  The testing for this is considered the toughest in the country!  We also find it appropriate to further our knowledge with other Professionals in the community.  We have had the pleasure of learning and teaching with the Jack Mountain Bushcraft School.

20141213_173838 20150228_165058 20150312_124940

So the way forward for us here at The Woodsman School and Guide Service is staying true to what we did to get us here.  We plan on keeping things relevant and honest, staying away from the hype and trying to pitch such to our students as a reality, or as the right way of doing things.  Teaching skills and taking trips that foster a good stewardship to the land and nature.  Immersing ourselves and students into the forests and waterways to facilitate and even greater learning experience!



St Croix River Canoe Trip 11-14 June 15

Our very first Guided canoe trip started on the afternoon of June 10th.  We had folks showing up at the school as early as about 4pm, and coming in until about 2am of the 11th (one late arrival from NY).  We would have a group of 8 folks, including myself, my instructor Dan Moore and 6 guests.  We met the night before to make sure we were well rested for our 5 hour trip to Maine the next morning.  This would be a 4 day guided canoe trip, and I was excited!


We started off the evening with the filling out of forms (standard practice), and then moved into some brief instruction in the classroom.  Dan covered a lot on the anatomy of the canoe, different paddling techniques and strokes, how to read the river and the likes.  We always give our guests the formal classroom instruction so when we finally get to the water, everyone is on the same page and there are no surprises.

After the 5 hour trip to Vanceboro, ME….we met up with the outfitter to get our canoes, paddles and vests.  There would be four boats, each running tandem.  As I recall, it was a perfect early afternoon, with the sun glistening off of the water that was passing us by ever so swiftly in the river.  What a gorgeous area, with Canada just on the other side of the river from us!

So being New England, and more specifically, Maine…..we were on the water about 10-15 minutes when a storm rolled in.  It came in from the distance and we could see the clouds, hear the thunder rumbling and even a couple of flashes were noted.  Because we had to make time to reach our first camp before dark, I decided we would continue paddling along close to the shoreline in case we needed to leave the water.  Within the next 20-30 minutes or so, I believe we were all soaked from the downpour.  The sun immediately came back out as it was just a passing thunderstorm, so spirits were still high and we dried out relatively quick as we continued toward our first camp.  While paddling we went over the paddling techniques and most of the other information from the previous day, so that the guests could see what that looked like in real time.  We hit several sections of rips on this day, but nothing too serious.

Finally we arrive at camp, pull all of the canoes out of the water, start unpacking and going over camp.  The first line of business was to gather enough firewood for cooking dinner as well as for the night.  Everyone pitched in and worked as a team. Its always good to see that.  Once the firewood gathering was complete, the guests were able to set up their tents, while I started preparing dinner.  As the guests finished setting their camps, they helped get a tripod built, complete with a galley pole for suspending our pots from.

IMG_0334 (Very nice camp along the river)

IMG_0337 (Good food and even some dessert goes a long way after a days paddle)

After dinner we all hung around and shared in some Woodsman Time. This is always one of my favorite times at any of our classes. We share stories, laughs and talk about things to come the next day….much like the stories you read about in the O’l wilderness books. The difference here, is we are living it and telling the stories.


The next day, after a delightful breakfast, we started back on the water. So load the boats back up and get to paddling. We seen a couple of Bald Eagles if I recall. They are prevalent along this trip and such a beautiful sight to see. Flying effortlessly from the tree tops and at times swooping down to get a closer look at us. There is an abundance of wildlife in Maine, and even when you cant see them, they usually leave something behind to let you know they are sharing the forest with you.


IMG_0363We found several areas with Moose scat by camp.

During the trip we often would throw a line in and try our luck. There were several fish caught during the four days, some by regular rod and reel and others by way of the fly rod.


Setting up camps and taking them down become effortless to a degree, and act more as a way of woods life. The tasks that make it daunting for a lot of folks in the wilderness become easier and appreciated when you live it.


The other times during the day, and at night, become more enjoyable as you spend the time out. Friendships are begun or strengthened. Teamwork is a byproduct of what we all know has to be accomplished to enjoy natures beauties and our time there. There is not much better than a pristine waterway to paddle on after a good meal and some labor packing your group and personal gear back up.


So there are many of good times out in the woods and on the water, but this usually doesn’t come without some mishaps. There are times when folks don’t communicate well, the river is just against you…..or simply put, things just happen. Here is an example of what can happen in some rapids if you are not giving them your undivided attention.

IMG_0352 IMG_0353 IMG_0354 IMG_0355(You and your stuff get wet!)

IMG_0356So on this trip I got to add two river rescues under my belt. Nothing serious, and even fun I might add…..but you surely want to avoid this if possible.

We hope you enjoyed this blog, and look forward to having you out with us on a trip in the future….be it a canoe trip or a snowshoe trip. Until then, please enjoy your time in the woods, on the water or otherwise. Safe travels friends.



Let’s Talk Fire and Fire Making Techniques

As you may already know, there are Lots of ways to start a fire.  I have tried many of them over the years, and still practice a variety of methods as much as possible even today.  It’s never a bad idea to know a few of the different ways to accomplish this potentially “life-saving” skill.  If you are not into the whole “Survival” thing, than it’s still not a bad idea so that you are not the person at the campground using an entire bottle of lighter/charcoal fluid to accomplish this task, and still failing most times.  I can’t be the only one who has seen this before?  Ten foot flame for thirty seconds or so, and then nothing?

20150127_170049 A “one match” fire in a blizzard.

So there are probably as many opinions (probably more) about what is the best fire starting implement, as there are fire starting implements.  Here are just a few examples:


There are the ones that you can simply buy at a store (shown above), and of course…there’s always the primitive ways where you make them yourself (ie.. Hand drill, bow drill, fire plow, fire saw, fire piston, flint and steel etc etc..).  The store bought items usually offer results consistent with some sort of instant gratification, whereas the latter requires much more labor and skill.  Another thing to consider and talk about is the preparation in starting any fire, but let’s discuss that later and stick with the implements here first.  ( Video on a bow drill start to finish: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gFBjzqLlAa8&index=18&list=PLLSCwNPpoRJfRMRd7Wp1q-hWAoYyEawgC )

One of the common debates I often see is that the infamous, ultimate, survival fire starter is the ferro rod.  The reasons people give, typically go something like this…”it throws 3000 degree sparks”….”you can throw it in the water, take it out…and it still works”……”it will out last any lighter, matches or the likes”.  Am I right so far?  I see/hear it all the time.  I am not discrediting the ferro rod, as it is a useful tool without a doubt…..but the best option?  I think that depends on personal opinion, but I also think some common sense would go a long way here in that regard.  Another thing to keep in mind, and consider, is what are we talking about in terms of use.  Are we talking “Survival Skill”, or are we talking ” Long-Term” use?  There is surely a difference.  Let’s think in terms of Survival (ie.. short term), as that is the case I mostly see this brought up, and this is where I tend to disagree with most folks as to what is the best option.  It is hard to beat an open flame and time saving techniques when they are most appropriate.  So if it is a “short term” situation….will the lighter really run out of fluid in that “72 hrs” (a common gripe about the lighter)?  I know I have used the same lighter for months on end most times, but that’s just me being honest again.  Here are a few example of the rods, as they come in many sizes.  Not all are created equally either.


So a bit on fire prep may be a good thing at this point.  Let’s skip past specific resources, as they vary with geographic location quite considerably.  The process remains much the same however.  To start a fire with anything less than instant flame….there is “a process”.  There are a couple of steps you need to concern yourself with to be successful.  The first is some sort of “bird’s nest”, or “tinder bundle”.  Some folks claim there is a difference in the terminology between the two….but I disagree.  A bird’s nest is nothing more than tinder (an easily, readily combustible material).  That will be what you use in order to get your coal (however you may accomplish that) to a flame.  The next thing you need is some sort of kindling, and the size will help tremendously in this step.  So this usually takes place with pinky-size twigs or smaller.  Once you have a good fire/coal bed going….it will be much easier to get your fuel (substantial size wood that will burn long and hot) to a sustainable point.  ( A couple of videos showing the collection/processing of materials: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uC0r5EpwFFc&index=5&list=PLLSCwNPpoRJfRMRd7Wp1q-hWAoYyEawgC  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdAG2a2GEXg&list=PLLSCwNPpoRJfRMRd7Wp1q-hWAoYyEawgC&index=6 )

1514974_385076231638563_1261386981_n A simple bird’s nest with some char in it.

Now that we have discussed the process briefly, let’s get back to implements.  So with the ever popular ferro rod, you need to know that “the process” is required.  You may skip the bird’s nest or tinder bundle if you wish….but you will surely need to process whatever material you will use, in most cases.  So this will take at least some time….which will vary based on knowledge and skills, not to mention the resource(s) itself.  So the way I view this is, ok the ferro rod works well when wet….but what about the tinder?  That is usually the overlooked portion when I see folks talk about this.  Something to keep in mind I guess.  Open flames will help tremendously in this way.  You can also skip the processing portion a great deal with open flame, thus saving time and energy spent. Here is another video where I show/discuss this: ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EjUZeOK7i4&list=PLLSCwNPpoRJfRMRd7Wp1q-hWAoYyEawgC&index=23 )

I have learned a lot over time, and a lot more about myself.  With that said, I always try and be humble and honest, because why not?  Who am I fooling otherwise?  So having tried many of the fire starting implements, I have gone back to the simple match.  I do use a lighter sometimes as well, but I prefer a match….maybe it’s the traditions of the Maine Guide in me, I’m not really sure.   At any rate, these methods have been introduced and evolved over time for a reason…..so it’s not ALWAYS a smart decision to go back in time and try and reinvent the wheel, or quickly jump on the band wagon of the next best Survival fire starter.  Though I practice many skills, and I think it is wise to do so, I don’t try and sell an idea to conform to popular opinion….that helps nobody.  I guess at the end of the day it would be hard to market matches or a lighter.  I think either of the two would be nice to have when needed, but the matches are what I enjoy using….and that’s just personal preference.

20150821_100329I like to use the strike anywhere matches and I keep them in a “match case”.

Without going on and on here, and rambling, it is all up to the user and what they like, or prefer……too each their own I guess.  But let’s not help spread bad decision making processes, just to conform to a popular belief, agree with the latest “Expert”, or because we can make some money from it.  Let’s pass on the good, practical information that may actually help someone one day!



Natural Shelters – One of the Most Underrated Skills You Should Know

Natural shelters have been used over thousands of years and they varied greatly depending on location, for obvious reasons.  I would like to take the opportunity and share some of the ones that I have constructed and used over the years, and give my insight on what I think works well in my geographic location (NE USA).

The very first shelter I ever built, with regards to “Survival”, or spending numerous nights in the wilds, was a simple lean-to.  This type of shelter is depicted in a lot of resources when it comes to Survival, and I think I know why.  A lean-to is probably the most conducive when it comes to “calorie expenditure”.  It can be set up in relatively quick fashion, without wasting a lot of calories or resources.  I spent many of nights sleeping in this type of shelter, and it worked pretty well for what it was.  I still fancy this type of shelter even today, again, with some considerations.  The downside of a lean-to is any type of weather.  It will hold off a rain storm if built properly, but a driving rain can be a big hassle.  Add in a winter environment, and you will cut more wood than you want to.  So my conclusion is, if you need a quick shelter, of natural materials…and for short term, the lean-to is not a bad option at all.  Just remember to consider the weather and what you need it to do for you.


The second type of shelter I constructed was a simple “A-Frame” out of 6″ thick or less logs, which actually worked very well.  At first I used my tarp to cover the frame as my waterproofing.  After a few uses I proceeded to add debris to it to make it all natural.  The thickness you need to make it waterproof can be researched in many books, and watched on many videos.  I think the adage is somewhere between 12″-18″ thick.  Through experience, I found that that is not entirely true, though it is not a bad judgment either.  This particular thickness offers a lot of insulation as well as aiding in the waterproofing, and maybe that’s why it seems to be the norm when folks talk about it.  At any rate, I find that it is merely a bunch of regurgitated information, as much of it seems to be nowadays….no matter the subject.  As a good friend of mine often reminds me, “there is nothing new under the sun”, and I agree when it comes to skills of old.  Once you add your debris to the structure, it will condense, even just overnight.  These types of shelters need to be maintained over time and constantly tended to, at least if you want to stay warm and dry.  I found over the years and the many shelters I have built, that once you get a good thick layer on, and it condenses, either by time, moisture or both….that almost seals the deal, assuming you had enough material to begin with.  At the end of the day, is the finished version or thickness 12″-18″, well not in my case…but it always seemed to work well for me.  Through the rain or the cold, the shelters typically worked well! (sorry for no picture, it was years ago and probably even a couple of computers ago)

The next type of shelter I constructed was another debris-type shelter also known as a “Spider Shelter”.  This shelter wasn’t dissimilar to the A-Frame other than the fact it was more conical in shape and had a bit more debris on it.  All in all, they worked pretty similar.  The A-frame and spider shelters were very good in the cold weather, as they retained a lot more heat than the previously mentioned.  I used fired with both of these shelters, but to take fire out of the equation, they were both better than the lean-to in a cold-weather environment.  You would probably be surprised at how waterproof they can be.  (again no pictures due to being years ago, but I have a video series on this one if you would like to check it out. Find it here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLLSCwNPpoRJcP7brOnFVuKtXOTcmDlDur)

After the Spider Shelter I made quite a few different shelters of various styles.  One of the most impressive was the cabin my buddy Joe and I built.  This took quite a while, and yes, we used a chainsaw and such, as well as some timber spikes to hold most of the frame together.  I had plans for a thatched roof on this one to keep with tradition and being natural and all, but time was not on my side.  So a couple of cheap tarps from Home Depot is all it got.  One winter during hunting season we paid a visit to check up on it and found a note from a random “military guy” saying what a great job we had done and how he was impressed with the quality of work.  It was a humbling experience, and the cabin still stands today after 5-6 years or so.


One of the last shelters I helped make, and I say help…as one of my Woodsman School classes all built this together, was a Wigwam.  This shelter is pretty easy to construct by yourself, providing you have the right resources to do so.  It doesn’t take a whole lot of heavy work to complete either.  If you add a tarp to the mix…all the easier.  Over time I have added a wood stove and the tarp to make this shelter even better.  I have spent numerous nights in it, and so have students of mine.  It could use a little work nowadays, but it is still solid as far as the framework goes, even after a couple of years.

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So with regards to natural shelters, there are many different styles and types….each conducive to their own environment and functionality.  All of the above mentioned worked well for me over the years, and I would certainly try each of them out again depending on my needs.  If I had to pick a favorite, the cabin would have to be it, though the wigwam is a pretty close second!

So its easy to watch a video, or read the current hyped-up Survival book to find out what you need to do as far as shelter building…..but it is much more appropriate to go out and try them for yourself, and truly see what works for you.

“It is easy to build something that looks like a shelter, but does it keep you warm and dry, and offer a good nights sleep?” (Tim Smith JMBS)